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《清淨道論》中「不淨觀」的教學特色=The Unique Teaching Points of A-śubhā-smrti (The Meditation on the Foul)” in the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purification)
作者 釋昭慧 =Shih, Chao-hwei
出處題名 法印學報=Journal of Dharma Seals
卷期n.12
出版日期2021.12
頁次1 - 32
出版者財團法人弘誓文教基金會
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項玄奘大學宗教與文化學系教授
關鍵詞四念處; 身念處; 厭惡作意; 取相; 墓園九相/十相
摘要本文先從整體禪觀教學的框架與視野來看待「不淨觀」。首先由「四念處」的總體修學項目,縮小範圍闡述「身念處」的內涵與特色;其次由「身念處」的六種修學項目,縮小範圍闡述「厭惡作意」與「墓園九相/十相」兩種不淨觀,包括它們的教學原理、修學項目與修習效應。最後再縮小範圍,就著「墓園九相/十相」,闡述《清淨道論》「不淨業處」的教學特色。

兩種不淨觀,都是鎖定五蘊中的「色蘊」而作觀,於「四念處」中,屬於「身念處」。修習這些不淨相,都有明確的修行目的,亦即:為了達致對治欲貪、獲得禪定、引發神通乃至究竟解脫的效益。

修不淨觀的重點是「隨念」,讓厭離心無間斷地念念生起,而非讓所緣境週遍擴大,修習「厭惡作意」或「墓園九相/十相」的主要目的,還是為了「對治欲貪」。

「墓園九相/十相」的教學特色非常顯著。從住處出發,去程與返程的沿途景象,到抵達塚間時,不淨相所在「四方諸相」,都須納入考察與憶持範圍,而不止是取不淨相。

塚間與屍體是如此令人怖畏,考察與憶持的範圍是如此寬廣而繁複,不淨相(屍體的九相或十相)又是如此變化迅速,一旦忘失其相,就難以重行取相,這使得「墓園九相/十相」的準備功夫、修習步驟與應注意事項,較諸其他業處更顯重要而複雜。

This thesis attempts to investigate the Meditation on the Foul based on the overview and the structure of overall meditation instructions. This starts with a discussion of the four foundations of mindfulness and their practices. Then it focuses on expounding the content and characteristics of mindfulness of the body. There are 6 practices included in the mindfulness of the body. In order to highlight the teaching points of the meditation on the foul in the Visuddhimagga, this thesis emphasizes A-śubhā-smrti and Navasivathika (visualization on 9 or in some texts, 10 stages of decaying corpses). The object of the two Meditations on the Foul is the form aggregate, one of the 5 aggregates. The aggregate of form belongs to the category of mindfulness of the body in the four foundations of mindfulness. There are clear purposes on the path for practicing these types of contemplations. These contemplations are considered conducive in overcoming desire and lust. As a result, one will gain meditative absorption, develop siddhis and eventually reach ultimate liberation. The point of practicing Meditation on the Foul is to develop steady recollection of aversion. The goal is for a practitioner to focus uninterruptedly on an object and in this case to make sure that Saṃvega (the aspiration to be liberated from samsara and escape the suffering of this world) keeps arising. The main purpose of practicing A-śubhā-smrti and Navasivathika is to let go of desire and lust. The teaching point of Navasivathika (the cemetery practice visualizing decaying corpses) is obvious. The procedure involves one leaving one's house and walking to a cemetery to view corpses. During the process of coming and going, one is required to pay attention and recollect everything that is noticed, including the decaying corpses. The cemetery and corpses are rather dreadful, the scope of examination and recollection is wide and complicated and the state of corpses changes rapidly. To properly practice this meditation and be able to recollect everything that happens during it, one must carefully prepare and make great effort to keep all the steps and details in mind. Should one fail to recall the details of what they have noticed, it would be a loss of a rare opportunity. The complexity of this meditative practice is precisely why it is thought to be more important than others.
目次一、前言 5
二、十一種面向的「如實正觀」 5
三、四念處→身念處→不淨觀 8
(一)四念處→身念處 8
(二)身念處→不淨觀 10
四、不淨觀之修學項目與修習效應 12
(一)不淨觀之修學項目 12
(二)不淨觀之修習效應 15
1. 對治欲貪 15
2. 獲得禪定 17
3. 引發神通 17
4. 究竟解脫 18
5. 負面效應 18
五、《清淨道論》中「不淨業處」的特色教學 19
(一)往返道途的考察與憶持 20
(二)不淨相所在「四方諸相」的考察與憶持 24
(三)不淨相的十一種取相 27
六、結語 29
參考書目 31
ISSN22241299 (P)
點閱次數1
建檔日期2022.02.22
更新日期2022.02.24










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