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從“靈性生活”走向“靈性護理”:以我國佛教安養院臨終關懷實踐和思想為例=From “Spiritual Life” to “Spiritual Care”: A Case Study of Hospice Care Practice and Thought in Chinese Buddhist Nursing Home
作者 陳昭 (著)=Chen, Zhao (au.)
出處題名 中央民族大學學報(哲學社會科學版)=Journal of the Central University for Nationalities(Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition)
卷期v.48 n.3 (總號=n.256)
出版日期2021
頁次137 - 142
出版者中央民族大學期刊社
出版地北京, 中國 [Beijing, China]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者單位:中國醫學科學院北京協和醫學院生命倫理學研究中心
關鍵詞臨終關懷=hospice care; “靈性生活”="spiritual life"; “靈性護理”="spiritual care"; “往生助念”=chanting mantra for future life; 互惠=reciprocity
摘要為推進養老模式的多元化發展,自我國出臺鼓勵宗教界興辦養老院和康復院的政策以來,各地已有50多家佛教寺院開設了老年居士安養院。本文關注的是此類安養院的臨終關懷實踐及其背後的指導思想,探討如何從人類學互惠理論視角對安養院的"往生助念"實踐從形式和意義上予以解讀。 "往生"是佛教用語,指的是此生生命結束後轉生於他方世界;"助念"是指壽命將盡時,臨終者請別人念佛,以此築牢"往生"信念並安詳地走完此生最後一程。安養院作為我國佛教界參與機構化養老和臨終關懷的一種組織形式,在緩解居家和社會養老負擔的同時,較為突出的特點是為入住老人提供精神支持和慰藉。本文通過對安養院老人晚年日常生活及精神信仰的呈現("靈性生活"),分析了安養院多種不同形式的互助互惠的"往生助念"實踐。文中將"往生助念"視為一種"靈性護理",其源頭是發生在安養院的"靈性生活"。換言之,"靈性護理"是一種涉及生命意義和死亡觀的精神慰藉形式,也是從"靈性生活"轉向臨終關懷的關鍵。對佛教安養院老人從"靈性生活"到"靈性護理"這一踐行文化多樣性嘗試的考察分析、從互惠視角對田野調研中"往生助念"實踐的探討,這些都對審視現代臨終關懷具有一定的啟發意義。

To promote the diversified development of the elderly care system, since the implementation of the policy of encouraging religious organizations to set up nursing homes and rehabilitation homes, over 50 Buddhist monasteries have opened care centers for Buddhist elder people. This paper focuses on the hospice care practice and its guiding ideology, and discusses how to interpret the practice of "Wang Sheng" from the perspective of anthropological reciprocal theory. "Wang Sheng" is a Buddhist terminology, which indicates future life after death in this life cycle. "Zhu Nian", or chanting Amitabha mantra, means the dying person asks others to help him or her chant mantra, so as to enhance his/her personal belief in future life. As an organizational form of institutionalized elderly care and hospice care in the Buddhist community of our country, the care center set up by Buddhist temples is characterized by providing spiritual support and comfort for the elderly while relieving the burden of elderly care for both individual homes and the society. Through presenting the daily life and spiritual belief of the elderly in their old ages(spiritual life), this paper analyzes the practice of mutual aid and mutual benefit through chanting mantras in various forms of nursing homes.I n other words, "spiritual care" is a form of spiritual consolation involving the meaning of life and the view of death, and the key to the transition from "spiritual life" to hospice care.
目次一、引言 137
(一) 臨終關懷的古代嘗試 137
(二) 互惠的人類學視角 138
二、“靈性生活”: 佛教安養院及院內老人生活格局 138
(一) 國內佛教安養院的興辦 138
(二) 安養院老人的晚年生活 139
三、“靈性護理”: 互助互惠的“往生助念”實踐 139
(一) 院內臨終助念 140
(二) 外出助念活動 140
(三) 新興的網絡助念 140
四、此身終老處: 關於臨終關懷的思考 141
ISSN10058575 (P)
DOI10.15970/j.cnki.1005-8575.2021.03.016
點閱次數1
建檔日期2022.05.06
更新日期2022.05.06










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