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唐末五代的禪宗變遷=The Development of the Chan School in the Late Tang——Five Dynasties Period
作者 柳幹康 (著)=Yanagi, Mikiyasu (au.)
出處題名 2021 第八屆漢傳佛教與聖嚴思想國際學術研討會
出版日期2021.06.29
頁次73 - 74
出版者財團法人聖嚴教育基金會
出版者網址 https://www.shengyen.org.tw/index.aspx?lang=cht
出版地臺北, 臺灣 [Taipei, Taiwan]
資料類型會議論文=Proceeding Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
關鍵詞禪宗=Chan School; 唐末五代=Late Tang and Five Dynasties; 馬祖道一=Mazu Daoyi; 石頭希遷=Shitou Xiquan; 雪峰義存=Xuefeng Yicun; 玄沙師備=Xuansha Shibei
摘要本報告擬分以下四個階段描述中國禪宗從唐末到五代的過渡。

首先,在江西弘法的馬祖道一(709–788)以問答方式使弟子領悟“即心是佛”,被公認為唐代禪思想的真正開端。因其禪法認為自心等同於佛陀,有可能誤導人們貪圖安逸、不求覺悟,因此後來有些人批評他並形成了以湖南石頭希遷為鼻祖的第二主流的新意識。

第二,會昌毀佛後(845)南北兩位禪僧,即河北的趙州從諗(778–897)和福建的雪峰義存(822–908)乃彼時之代表。趙州批評石頭禪的同時也回到了馬祖禪,而雪峰則尋求一種超越馬祖和石頭的新禪法。由於北部政局不穩,趙州法系不久銷聲匿跡,而雪峰教團在閩國庇護下迅速發展壯大。

第三,雪峰培養的一眾禪僧中玄沙師備(835–908)和雲門文偃(864–949)尤為突出。他們都要超越其師雪峰,玄沙提出了一個包容一切的佛心,而雲門通過拒絕所有概念來揭示真理。雲門和玄沙的教團分別在南漢、南唐及吳越開枝散葉。第四,玄沙法系與雪峰集團的自我意識不同,雙方早有爭執。爾後玄沙系的天台徳韶(891–972)被吳越第五代國王錢弘俶(在位:948–978)尊為國師,在其治下玄沙系的優勢得以確保。徳韶有兩位法嗣聞名遐邇,即永明延壽(904–976)和道原(生歿年未詳)。延壽與道原二人皆有志以禪統攝全體佛教,唯路徑有所不同。延壽的《宗鏡錄》著墨於佛教的思想與實踐層面,而道原的《景徳傳燈錄》則以禪宗傳法系為主線描繪了佛教歷史。因吳越國納土歸宋,其佛教也直接延續宋代。並到了宋代《宗鏡錄》與《景徳傳燈錄》皆被公認為佛教正統之說而被收於大藏經中。

This presentation describes the changes of Chan Buddhism during the Late Tang– Five
Dynasties with a focus on the following four stages:

First, Mazu Daoyi 馬祖道一 (709-788) of Jiangxi awakened people to the idea that “this mind itself is buddha” in his dialogues, which marks the true beginning of Tang-era Chan. Yet, as this idea carried with it the danger of making people complacent with their current situation of unenlightenment, there soon arose critical responses to Mazu’s ideology which is represented by the second main lineage of Chan founded by Shitou Xiquan 石頭希遷(700-790)of Hunan.

Second, in the wake of the Huichang persecution (845), both the monks Zhaozhou Congshen 趙州從諗(778-897)of Hebei, and Xuefeng Yicun 雪峰義存(822-908)of Fujian, became representatives of the Chan school. Zhaozhou criticized Shitou’s position and returned to Mazu-style Chan, while Xuefeng attempted to find a new style of Chan which would overcome the criticisms raised towards the Chan styles of both the Mazu and Shitou lineages. The political situation in the north was unstable, and while Zhaozhou's dharma lineage disappeared very quickly, the Chan lineage of Xuefeng flourished under the patronage of the Kingdom of Min.

Third, Xuefeng produced a great many disciples, with the most influential ones being Xuansha Shibei 玄沙師備 (835-908) and Yunmen Wenyan 雲門文偃 (864-949). Although both monks tried to transcend the thought of Xuefeng, their views on truth were different: Xuahsha presented an infinite mind that embraces everything, while Yunmen rejected all discriminatory thinking as the means of enlightenment. Yunmen's lineage prospered in the Southern Han, while Xuansha's lineage prospered in the Southern Tang and the Kingdom of Wuyue.

Fourth, Xuansha's disciples had a separate and independent identity from that of Xuefeng's heirs, and disputes arose between them. Later in Wuyue, Tiantai Deshao 天台徳韶 (891-972) of the Xuansha faction was instituted as a national preceptor by Qian Hongchu 錢弘俶 (r. 948-978), the fifth king of Wuyue, and the superiority of Xuansha's lineage was established under his authority. Deshao had two important successors—Yongming Yanshou 永明延壽 (904-976), who compiled the Zongjing lu to integrate the entirety Buddhist thought and practice from the standpoint of Chan—and Daoyuan 道原(dates unknown), who compiled the Jingde chuandeng lu to integrate the entirety of Buddhist history from the standpoint of Chan. The Buddhism of the Kingdom of Wuyue was passed down to the next era as Qian Hongchu presented the land of his kingdom to the Song Dynasty, and these two texts were also inherited and official recognized as orthodox Buddhist doctrine in the Song period with their inclusion in the Buddhist canon.
點閱次數1
建檔日期2022.06.13
更新日期2022.06.23










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