This article examines the background of the term huyong (互用) and jiaoge (交割) in Chan Pure Rules from the viewpoint of their economic and Buddhist doctrinal aspects.
In the Chanyuan qinggui and Chixiu Baizhang qinggui, the word jiaoge appears when a new officer or an abbot takes a former ones’ place. They examine together with a book of public property of the monastery whether they are lost or in deal to be found. As the word has its root in one of the five precepts, “not stealing,” it shows that there existed arrogations or stealing of public property in Chinese monasteries.
The word huyong also has its root in the moral restraints in Buddhism. It refers to mixed usage of the three treasures. For instance, there is a tale quoted in the Chixiu Baizhang qinggui, in which a monk suffers from heavy punishments because of having spent money offered to provide a meal for monks instead on building a saṃgha hall.
The meanings of these two words have their origin in Buddhist rules and precepts, and at the same time they function to show some economic aspects of Chinese Chan monasteries from the 12th to 14th centuries.