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從六朝三本觀音應驗記看觀音信仰入華的調適情況=Examination of Localization of the Faith of Guanyin in China from Three Guanyin Manifestations in the Six Dynasties
作者 徐一智 (著)=Hsü, Yi-zhi (au.)
出處題名 國立成功大學歷史學報=Bulletin of History Department National Ch'eng Kung University
卷期n.43
出版日期2012.12
頁次57 - 126
出版者國立成功大學歷史學系
出版者網址 https://his.ncku.edu.tw/
出版地臺南市, 臺灣 [Tainan shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項本文為作者於中央研究院中國文哲研究所之研究成果。
關鍵詞觀音信仰=The Belief of Guanyin (faith); 觀音應驗記=Guanyin Manifestation; 六朝=Six Dynasties; 傅亮=Fu Liang; 張演=Zhang Yen; 陸杲=Lu Gao
摘要對於觀音信仰傳入中國的調適情況,能由六朝觀音應驗記裏的記載來窺見。六朝留存的應驗記有東晉傅亮《光世音應驗記》、劉宋張演《續光世音應驗記》、梁陸杲《繫觀世音應驗記》。從這些應驗記保存的相關內容,可知道觀音初傳中國的狀況:一、當時觀音信仰是被士族支持,而傳揚下來,隨著其時政治中心移往南方發展,觀音崇拜也跟著轉往南方江浙地區流傳;二、依據應驗經驗會彼此分享的道理,應驗記中的人物就應包括在同信者中。故那時應驗記的主人翁,如以僧人和官吏為主角(中下級官吏為主),那信仰的接受人及應驗記的讀者,就是以他們為主;三、南北朝時,因中國處於動盪的時代,人民常會遇到兵亂、賊亂、水、火災難,因而應驗記亦宣揚觀音可救助這些危難,並給予民眾獲救的證明,菩薩能力即以解決這些困難為要事;四、應驗記所記錄到的觀音神蹟發生地,便是信仰傳播地。河北、陜西、河南為信仰佛教朝代如前秦、後秦與後趙活動地,他們則比其他地方更能成為觀音信仰地區。而南方江、浙地域,屬於南方各代繁榮地,自然亦適合觀音崇拜的傳佈。最後,從單純稱名即可獲菩薩救助、觀音可違逆果業報應、觀音偶像崇拜出現、融進中國式鬼魂等,都能看出觀音信仰也出現中國化的適應傾向。

Guanyin Manifestations from the Six Dynasties give the world a glimpse of how the faith of Guanyin localized after it was introduced to China. The manifestations from the Six Dynasties include Fu Liang’s Guang Shi Yin Manifestation from the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Zhang Yen’s Continued Accounts of Guang Shi Yin Manifestation from the Liu Song Dynasty and Lu Gao’s Addendum to Guan Shi Yin Manifestation from the Liang Dynasty. The contents of the three Manifestations gave early accounts of when Guanyin was first introduced to China. Firstly, the faith of Guanyin was supported by the scholar - officials and became widely spread. As the political focus shifted south, so did the faith of Guanyin. It became popular in the Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. Secondly, the reason why the Manifestations were shared among people is that the readers were reflected through the characters. If the characters in these books were monks and officials, the monks and the officials were also the readers. Thirdly, the Southern and Northern Dynasties were a period of turbulence in China. People suffered from war, riots, fire and natural disasters such as flood. The Manifestations provided stories and testimonies about Guanyin’s rescues. Fourthly, in the Manifestations, the locations where the miracles occurred were also where the religion was popularized. In Former Qin, Later Qin and Later Zhao Dynasties where Buddhism was active, their bases such as Hebei, Shaanxi and Henan provinces naturally became where the faith of Guanyin became popular. Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, the prosperous regions in the south, were also ideal for the faith of Guanyin. And lastly, the facts that by simply calling for Guanyin’s name, one can be rescued, and that Guanyin can defy karma, and the idol worshipping of Guanyin, and the incorporation of Chinese ghosts all demonstrate the localization of the faith of Guanyin in China.
目次摘要 57
Abstract 59
壹、前言 61
貳、應驗記的作者及其與佛教之關係 67
一、六朝佛教興盛原因 67
二、應驗記作者的生平 68
(一)傅亮的生平事蹟 68
(二)張演的生平事蹟 69
(三)陸杲的生平事蹟 70
三、應驗記創作的過程 71
參、應驗記撰述的動機 75
肆、應驗記的神蹟內容 78
一、經典中觀音菩薩救難的神力 78
二、應驗記裏觀音顯化神蹟的內容 82
(一)拔病苦 82
(二)救厄難 82
1.兵亂 83
2.刑殺 84
3.水、火難 86
4.賊難 86
5.獸害 88
6.鬼害 89
(三)與福慧 91
伍、應驗記中觀音信仰的傳佈與適應 92
一、信仰傳佈的地區 92
二、信仰感應的原理 94
三、信仰形式的變遷 96
(一)改變果報 96
(二)黑衣水神 98
(三)羅剎之難 99
(四)滿佈怨賊 100
(五)偶像崇拜 102
陸、應驗記的版本流傳與讀者 104
一、應驗記的傳播 104
二、應驗記的讀者 110
柒、結論 113
參考書目 117
A.史料(依照筆劃順序) 117
B.專書(含譯著) 118
C.期刊論文(含翻譯) 120
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建檔日期2022.10.17
更新日期2022.10.17










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