Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

idha tappati pecca tappati pāpakārī ubhayattha tappati

pāpaṃ me katan ti tappati bhiyyo tappati duggatiṃ gato

(DhP 17)


He is tormented here, he is tormented after death, in both states is the wrongdoer tormented.
He is tormented [by the thought] "I have done evil". He is tormented even more, having gone to a bad birth.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

idha    tappati     pecca      tappati   pāpa+kārī ubhayattha tappati
|             |              |              |           |        |          |              |

Adv.  V.pas.in.   V.ger.   V.pas.in.  N.n.  N.m.   Adv.     V.pas.in.

|        3.Sg.pres.     |       3.Sg.pres.    |   Nom.Sg.   |        3.Sg.pres.

|_______|              |________|           |____|          |________|

      |________________|                      |____________|


List of Abbreviations

pāpaṃ       me        katan    ti      tappati   bhiyyo  tappati    duggatiṃ    gato
|                  |             |         |          |            |            |              |              |

Nom.n.     Pron.    Adj.n.  Part.  V.pas.in.  Adv.  V.pas.in.     N.f.       Adj.m.

Nom.Sg.  Ins.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  |     3.Sg.pres.   |      3.Sg.pres.  Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg.

|__________|_______|         |          |            |_______|              |________|

         |_____|                      |          |                   |________________|

              |_______________|          |                                         |

Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

idha, Adv.: here, in this world.

tappati, V.: to be tormented, to be consumed by remorse. Pass. of tap- (to be hot, to burn). 3.Sg.pas.in.pres. = tappati.

pecca, V.: after death. It is a ger. of the verb i- (to go) with the prefix pa- (directional prefix of forward motion). This verb means literally "to go over", it is used as an euphemism for "to die".

pāpakārī: pāpakārin-, N.m.: wrong-doer. A compound of:
    pāpa-, N.n.: evil, wrong doing.

    kārin-, N.m.: doer. Derived (by adding the possessive suffix -in) from the word
kāra-, N.m.: act, action (this derived from the verb kar-, to do).
Nom.Sg. = pāpakārī.

List of Abbreviations

ubhayattha, Adv.: in both cases.

pāpaṃ: pāpa-, N.n.: evil, wrong doing. Nom.Sg. = pāpaṃ.

me: aham-, Pron.: I. Ins.Sg. = mayā, short form me (by me).

katan-, kata-, Adj.: done. P.p. of the verb kar- (to do). Nom.Sg.n. = kataṃ. The form katan is due to the euphonic combination (kataṃ + ti = katan ti).

ti, part.: (sometimes written as iti) usually a particle, symbolizing the end of direct speech (in English that is expressed by quotation marks).

bhiyyo, Adv.: more, further, in a higher degree.

duggatiṃ: duggati-, N.f.: a miserable existence, a realm of misery, undesirable rebirth. Composed of:
    du-, pref.: bad, difficult.

    gati-, N.f.: existence, rebirth. Derived from the verb gam- (to go).

Acc.Sg. = duggatiṃ.

gato: gata-, Adj.: gone. P.p. of the verb gam- (to go). Nom.Sg.m. = gato.

List of Abbreviations

    The first line consists of loosely connected sentences. They are:

    1) idha tappati ([the wrongdoer] is tormented here). Here the subject is omitted (it is the word pāpakārī from the third sentence). The verb tappati (grieves) is in 3rd person singular, present tense, passive voice, indicative. The adverb idha (here) is an attribute to the verb.

    2) pecca socati ([the wrongdoer] is tormented after death). Again, the subject is the word pāpakārī from the following sentence. The verb is tappati (as above). The gerund pecca (having gone) is an attribute to the verb.

    3) pāpakārī ubhayattha tappati (the wrongdoer is tormented in both states). The subject of this sentence (and of the two previous ones) is the word pāpakārī (wrongdoer). It is in nominative singular. The verb is tappati (explained above). The adverb ubhayattha (in both places) serves as an attribute to the verb.

    The second line consists of two segments:

    1) pāpaṃ me katan ti tappati (He is tormented [by the thought] "I have done evil"). Here the subject is omitted, it is the word pāpakārī from the previous sentence and the verb is tappati (as above). There is a direct speech clause inserted -- pāpaṃ me katan ti. Here the subject is pāpaṃ (evil, nominative singular). And as a verb serves the past participle kataṃ (done, nominative singular). The pronoun me (by me, instrumental singular) is an attribute to the verb. The particle ti marks the end of the direct speech.

    2) bhiyyo tappati duggatiṃ gato (He is tormented even more, having gone to a bad birth). The sentence is introduced by the adverb bhiyyo (more). The subject is again the word pāpakārī from the first line. The verb is also tappati. The verb has an attribute -- the word gato (gone, past participle, nominative singular), which in turn has its own attribute duggatiṃ (to the bad birth, accusative singular).


    This pair of verses (DhP 17 and DhP 18) is closely related to the previous pair (DhP 15 and DhP 16).

    Here again, the evildoer is tormented both here and in the next life. Not only does the very idea that he has done evil torment him, but even more grief awaits him in his next life, where he will go to the undesirable states of being -- as an animal, to the hell etc.

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

Word pronunciation: