Lesson 6

The verbs of the IV. class are thematic verbs. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-, kupyati (to be angry).

The verb drw- (to see) is irregular and defective. Only passive is constructed from this root, indicative uses different root (paw-). Therefore: drw-, pawyati (to see, to look).

The declension of the masculine "u-stems":


watru-, m. (enemy)

Sg. Du. Pl.
Nom. watruh watru watravah
Acc. watrum watru watrun
Ins. watruna watrubhyam watrubhih
Dat. watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah
Abl. watroh watrubhyam watrubhyah
Gen. watroh watrvoh watrunam
Loc. watrau watrvoh watrusu
Voc. watro watru watravah


Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension.



Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. For example a- means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come), anayati (to bring). But if a is used separately as a preposition, it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest), a vanat (only from the forest).

Sandhi rules:


-ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes).

-h after any vowel and before c-, ch- is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god), agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire).

-h after any vowel and before t-, th- is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there), watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here).

Text (read and translate):


1. kavayo dhane lubhyanti |

2. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah |

3. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti |

4. parawuna vrksankrntatha |

5. janasya bindavo gireh patanti |

6. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti |

7. vipro hutamagnavasyati |

8. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya |

9. naro 'wvamarohati |

10. ksetresu jalaj wusyati |

11. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti |

12. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti |

13. balo gurave pattraj likhati |

14. jana maninaj rawinicchanti |

15. a girervrksa rohanti |

16. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti |

17. balau grhe hvayati narah |

18. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti |

19. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati |

20. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah |

21. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti |

22. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati |

The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit:


1. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree.

2. "There stands father's house," says the boy to the traveler.

3. The king with fighters comes to the city.

4. By the power of [your] arms you win, oh king.

5. We do not live here, but father lives here.

6. "What are you writing now," asks teacher the student.

7. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises.

8. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city.

The exercise key



as-, asyati (IV): to throw

kup-, kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Dat.)

krudh-, krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Dat.)

a+gam-, agacchati (I): to come

tr-, tarati (I): to cross over

naw-, nawyati (IV): to be lost, to perish

drw-, pawyati (IV): to see, to look

yudh-, yudhyati (IV): to fight

a+ruh-, arohati (I): to ascend, to mount

likh-, likhati (VI): to write

lubh-, lubhyati (IV): to long for, to desire (with Dat. or Loc.)

wus-, wusyati (IV): to dry out

snih-, snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. or Loc.)

hu-, hvayati (IV): to call

a+hu-, ahvayati (IV): to call here, to call in

udadhi-, m.: ocean

guru-, m.: teacher, guru

pattra-, n.: leaf, letter

parawu-, m.: axe

pada-, m.: foot, footprint

bahu-, m.: arm

bindu-, m.: drop

mani-, m.: gem, precious stone

ratna-, n.: jewel, precious stone

rawi-, m.: heap, mass, quantity

ripu-, m.: enemy

visnu-, m.: Hindu god Vishnu

vihaga-, m.: bird

watru-, m.: enemy

wastra-, n.: treatise, law-book

wisya-, m.: student, pupil

saha, prep. or postp.: with (with Inst.)